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Crowland Abbey

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Reference Name MLI20551

Name:
Crowland Abbey

Summary:
The site of Crowland Abbey with its surviving ruins.

Location:
CROWLAND, SOUTH HOLLAND, LINCOLNSHIRE

Description:
(This is the record for Crowland Abbey as refounded in the mid 10th century until its dissolution in 1539).

The original monastery, founded in the early 8th century (on the site of the hermitage of the Anglo-Saxon Saint Guthlac), was destroyed by the Danes in 870 and re-founded as a Benedictine abbey in the mid 10th century. From the 10th to the 15th centuries, the monastic buildings were repeatedly extended and rebuilt. The abbey was finally dissolved in 1539 and all the monastic buildings demolished except the nave and aisles of the abbey church which were taken into use as the parish church. The legally designated scheduling of this monument includes the ruins of part of the abbey church, the buried remains of the Anglo-Saxon hermitage, the Anglo-Saxon monastery (see PRN 23519), medieval monastic buildings and the earthworks of the civil war defences (see PRN 22051). Excluded from the scheduling are the walls and fabric of the present parish church and its tower, though not the ruins attached to them; the churchyard walls and gateways, which are listed; and all gravestones, 161 of which are listed; the ground beneath these features is, however, included. In the south-western part of the churchyard, which is still in use as a cemetery, the graves, gravestones and earth to a depth of 2m, are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath this depth is included. There is a full description in the revised scheduling document 22613. {1}{2}{3}{4}{5}{6}{7}{8}{9}{10}{11}{12}

Stained glass in this church dates to the 14th or 15th century. One fragment displays the rare technique of annealing. {13}

A watching brief at the north side of the Abbey, adjacent to the vestry built in 1933, produced a few unstratified medieval and post medieval artefacts including a decorated bone apple corer of 13th to 17th century date and a few scraps of medieval window glass. A mortar and stone layer was seen at a depth of 1.8m below existing ground level, but further investigation of this feature was not possible due to the unstable nature of the trench. Two recent (late 19th century or later) interrments were also encountered, as was an unstratified fragment of human bone with wool shroud fragments still adhering. {14}{15}

The Abbey church, the churchyard’s west wall and gate and numerous gravestones, table tombs, coffins and a monument are all listed. For full descriptions see the listing descriptions. {16}

Over one hundred fragments of medieval architectural stone originating from the abbey or its associated buildings were recorded and photographed prior to their re-use in an extension to the vestry of the abbey church. {17}

Sources:
1 Index: Ordnance Survey. Ordnance Survey Card Index. TF 21 SW: 1, 1965, D.A.
2 Article in Serial: CLAPHAM A W. 1932. ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. vol.89, pp.349-51
3 Bibliographic Reference: Page, W. (editor). 1906. The Victoria County History. Lincolnshire volume II. vol.2, pp.105-18
4 Bibliographic Reference: KNOWLES, D. AND HADCOCK, R.N.. 1953. MEDIEVAL RELIGIOUS HOUSES IN ENGLAND AND WALES. p.63
5 Index: SMR. Sites and Monuments Record Card Index. TF 21 SW: G
6 Bibliographic Reference: Nikolaus Pevsner and John Harris, with Nicholas Antram. 1989. Buildings of England: Lincolnshire (Second Edition). -
7 Bibliographic Reference: William White. 1856. History, Gazetteer and Directory of Lincolnshire - Second Edition. pp.822-3
8 Aerial Photograph: 1945-84. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY COLLECTION. JT9-10, & 13-15 (1952)
9 Scheduling Record: HBMC. AM 7. SAM 263
10 Bibliographic Reference: Hayes, P. P. and Lane, T. W.. 1992. The Fenland Project No.5: Lincolnshire Survey, the South-West Fens. gaz.CRO42, pp.202-4
11 Aerial Photograph: FOARD, G.. 1984-90. NORTHANTS CC. 2466/8, 9 (1984)
12 Scheduling Record: ENGLISH HERITAGE. 1994. REVISED SCHEDULING DOCUMENT 22613. MPP 23
13 Bibliographic Reference: Hebgin-Barnes, Penny. 1996. The Medieval Stained Glass of the County of Lincolnshire. p.76
14 Report: Lindsey Archaeological Services. 2006. North Extension Crowland Abbey, Crowland: Archaeological Watching Brief. SER00
15 Archive: Lindsey Archaeological Services. 2006. North Extension Crowland Abbey, Crowland: Archaeological Watching Brief. LCNCC 2006.89
16 Index: Department of the Environment. 1987. List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. 18/1-4; 115.001-4
17 Report: Hall, Jackie. 2006. Croyland Abbey: Loose Architectural Stones. -

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Last updated: 09-December-2018 13:41:42

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