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Site of St Rumbold's Church and Churchyard, Monks Road



Reference Name MLI83257

Name:
Site of St Rumbold's Church and Churchyard, Monks Road

Summary:
Site of St Rumbold's Church and churchyard, Monks Road.

Location:
ABBEY, LINCOLN, LINCOLNSHIRE

Description:
The location of St Rumbold's Church has been debated. The 1905 Ordnance Survey map shows it just to the north of St Rumbold Street (this street name is of recent origin, apparently having been given by the Lighting and Paving Commissioners in 1832) and the Ordnance survey cards agree with this. Venables, in 1888, also places it in this location. A map of 1817 shows it to the north, however, near the City Gaol. {1}{2}{3}

Documentary research supports this location, as does the archaeological investigations at the Sessions House (see below). {4}

This church stood in the 'senior' location in the Butwerk suburb and this, along with its dedication, would suggest an early, possibly 10th century, foundation. It has been assumed that the dedication was to the patron saint of Malines in Flanders, however it may refer to a Mercian saint who was culted in Kings Sutton, Brackley and Buckingham. The church's associated parish had fewer than 10 inhabitants by 1428 and had clearly become redundant before the Reformation. At some point the parish was amalgamated with St Swithins. {5}

It is first mentioned in documentary sources in 1147-8 and its final mention is in 1524. {6}

Gravestones and capitals were discovered during the building of the Sessions House, although these were atributed to St Clement's (PRN 70531) which was thought to occupy this site. {7}

Human remains were discovered during archaeological evaluation at the Sessions House in early 1997. Some of these remains were in graves which were both cutting into and sealed by floors of mortar and cobbles, suggesting burials within a structure. These internal burials almost certainly indicate the position of the medieval church. Post holes cutting into the latest surviving floor may represent the line of a timber partition or wall screen. {8}

During a watching brief on the same site, the foundations of an east/west aligned limestone wall were recorded, thought to be the southern wall of St Rumbold's church. Pottery embedded in the wall dated to the late 10th century. A robber trench suggests that this wall was robbed in the early twelfth century, possibly much later. Several burials were also recorded adjacent to the wall, the latest of which dated to circa the early 13th to mid-14th centuries from finds in the grave fill. This latest burial was cut into a mortar floor, along with three postholes of unknown function. The burial, floor and postholes were then sealed by a later mortar floor with flat worn limestones partially within it, suggesting that it may have been cobbled. This floor was sealed by demolition deposits dating to the mid to late 15th century, giving a terminus post quem for the building's demolition. {9}{10}

A heavily disturbed graveyard soil containing human bone fragments was recorded in July 2007, during the archaeological monitoring of groundworks for new services at Monks Road. The deposit was thought to relate to the nearby medieval church of St Rumbold. {11}{12}

Sources:
1 Bibliographic reference: Mills, D.R. and Wheeler, R.C.. 2004. Historic Town Plans of Lincoln 1610 - 1920. 92. Marrat 1817 square G no 11
2 Article in serial: VENABLES, E.. 1888. 'A list and brief description of the churches of Lincoln previous to the period of the Reformation' in Associated Architectural and Archaeological Societies’ Reports and Papers. p.335, no.16
3 Map: Ordnance Survey. 1902-1906. 25 Inch Ordnance Survey County Series Map - Second Edition. -
4 Index: Ordnance Survey. Ordnance Survey Card Index. SK 97 SE: 53, 90
5 Article in serial: Field, F.N. and George, I.. 1998. Lincolnshire History and Archaeology. vol.33, pp.38-9
6 Bibliographic reference: Cameron, K.. 1984. The Place-Names of Lincolnshire, Part 1. 1. pp.96, 134
7 Bibliographic reference: Johnson, C.P.C.. 1992. A Hive of Industry. p.1
8 Bibliographic reference: Jones, Michael, J; Stocker, D.; and Vince, A.. 2003. The City by the Pool including LARA. RAZ 9.60.9, 10.60.9
9 Intervention Report: City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit. April 1999. Sessions House, Monks Road, Lincoln. SESA97
10 Excavation archive: City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit. April 1999. Sessions House, Monks Road, Lincoln. LCNCC 139.97
11 Intervention Report: Archaeological Project Services. 2007. Service Trench at Monks Road, Lincoln. APS site code: LMRB 07
12 Excavation archive: Archaeological Project Services. 2007. Service Trench at Monks Road, Lincoln. LCNCC 2007.147

Links:
Lincolnshire County Council is not responsible for the content of external weblinks.
The following reports are available from the ADS digital library.
9 Intervention Report: City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit. April 1999. Sessions House, Monks Road, Lincoln. SESA97
11 Intervention Report: Archaeological Project Services. 2007. Service Trench at Monks Road, Lincoln. APS site code: LMRB 07

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Last updated: 03-December-2016 15:01:00

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